How Do I Become a Biomedical Scientist - Education & Experience

Biomedical scientists use scientific research to improve human health. They design studies to test and develop new treatment plans, analyze medical data to investigate pathogens and chronic diseases, and develop social programs that can improve outcomes in population health. Biomedical science is the science of medicine and to practice it, biomedical scientists need to be highly educated and supremely dedicated.

While the old school way of thinking used to prescribe biomedical scientists a linear pathway through school to positions in academic research, that’s not necessarily still the case. Between 2005 and 2009, some 100,000 doctoral degrees were awarded but only 16,000 new professor positions were created, according to a study published by the National Institutes of Health. But that apparent oversupply isn’t as grim as it looks: data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS 2023) projected a 10 percent increase in jobs for medical scientists nationally from 2022 to 2032.

Working in several sectors ranging from research to academia, biomedical scientists can choose to pursue work in faster-paced fields of industry or university-based laboratories. But everything comes with tradeoffs. Being under the direction of a specific corporate agenda, biomedical scientists who work as industry researchers generally have less intellectual freedom than their academic counterparts but are often paid higher salaries. On the other hand, biomedical scientists who work in academia may have intellectual freedom but can be constrained by grant funding, publication quotas, and teaching requirements.

Some biomedical scientists put themselves in a different category altogether by pursuing a medical degree alongside their research education, opening up the possibility of private practice and physician-related duties. It’s also becoming more common for biomedical scientists to seek employment in nontraditional roles: someone educated as a biomedical scientist may now apply their knowledge in fields like consulting, public policy, and patent law.

On the whole, occupations in biomedical science are growing and there are multiple pathways to pursue this career. The type of education will influence which biomedical science sector a professional will end up in. Read this step-by-step guide to becoming a biomedical scientist to plan for all possible options.

Step-By-Step Guide to Becoming a Biomedical Scientist

Step 1a: Earn a Bachelor’s Degree (Four Years)

After graduating from high school, an aspiring biomedical scientist needs to earn a bachelor’s degree. At this stage, practically any major related to the life sciences is suitable: biology, chemistry, or biomedical engineering are all possibilities. Admissions requirements for undergraduate programs vary from school to school but generally include some combination of the following: a competitive high school GPA (3.0 or greater); SAT and/or ACT scores; letters of recommendation, and a personal statement.

Arizona State University

Arizona State University offers a BS in biological sciences with a concentration in biomedical sciences. The curriculum is designed for students who wish to pursue either medical school or biomedical research careers in academic, clinical, and industry settings. The program can be completed either online or on-campus.

Core classes cover conceptual approaches to biology; statistics for biosciences; advanced principles of biochemistry; developmental biology; genetics; and organic chemistry. Students may also apply for an accelerated program, which allows them to complete both a BS and MS in five years instead of six. The standard four-year BS program consists of 120 credit-hours.

Upon successfully completing the program, graduates can take up roles such as biological scientists, clinical trial managers, laboratory technologists, molecular biologists, pharmacists, and physician assistants.

  • Location: Tempe, AZ
  • Accreditation: Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools
  • Expected Time to Completion: 48 months
  • Estimated Tuition: $994 per credit

University of Iowa

The University of Iowa has a selective and challenging BS in biomedical sciences. As a collaboration between the biochemistry, biology, Immunology, chemistry, and microbiology departments, the program is designed to prepare students for the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) and biomedical research at the graduate level and beyond.

This program requires a minimum of 120 credit-hours, including at least 77 to 83 credits of work for the biomedical science major. The curriculum covers biology; biochemistry; microbiology; physics; human physiology; psychology; and statistics. Students are also encouraged to participate in the Iowa Center for Research by Undergraduates (ICRU) and to apply for research scholarships.

  • Location: Iowa City, Iowa
  • Accreditation: The Higher Learning Commission
  • Expected Time to Completion: 48 months
  • Estimated Tuition: Iowa residents ($10,964); non-residents ($32,927)

Step 1b: Gain Early Work and Research Experience (Optional, Timeline Varies)

While earning a bachelor’s degree, many aspiring biomedical scientists gain some early work and research experience. While it’s not always a degree requirement, internships and laboratory assistantships can dramatically boost one’s applied skills and one’s academic applications.

Working in a research capacity under the supervision of dedicated biomedical scientists can be a rich education in and of itself and it can also help direct one’s education towards a specific niche of biomedical science.

Step 2: Earn a Master’s Degree (Optional, One to Three Years)

After earning their bachelor’s degree, some aspiring biomedical scientists opt to earn a master’s degree. While it’s not a requirement to practice biomedical science, a master’s degree can allow graduates to sharpen their expertise and enhance their applications for PhD or dual-degree programs. Furthermore, it’s possible at this stage to pair one’s master’s degree with a master’s in another field (e.g., public health, business administration) to widen one’s career options down the road.

Admissions requirements for biomedical science master’s programs vary from school to school but generally include some combination of the following: a competitive undergraduate GPA (3.0 or greater); MCAT and/or GRE scores; letters of recommendation; work and/or research experience; and a personal statement.

Tufts University

Tufts University offers a master’s of science in biomedical science (MBS) for pre-professional students who are looking to strengthen their academic credentials before applying to MD and PhD programs. The curriculum closely follows that of a first-year medical school student, with key courses in the following areas: anatomy, biochemistry, cell biology, medical genetics, microbiology, pathology, and pharmacology.

Tufts also allows students to get a dual degree, pairing the MBS with a master of business administration (MBA) or master of public health (MPH), which can significantly boost one’s competitiveness in tangential roles and sectors post-graduation. The baseline MBS program consists of 30 to 33 credits.

  • Location: Boston, MA
  • Accreditation: New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC)
  • Expected Time to Completion: 12 months
  • Estimated Tuition: $58,560 per year

Miller School of Medicine at the University of Miami

The Miller School of Medicine at the University of Miami offers an intensive master of science in biomedical science (MiBS) degree that is designed to be completed in under a year.

The core curriculum covers coursework in areas such as biochemistry for the biosciences; laboratory research or physician shadowing; molecular biology for the biosciences; gross anatomy & histology; advanced molecular and cell biology; cell physiology; and basic pathobiology. Students may also choose to specialize in one of three customized tracks: medicine, research, or drug discovery. Students have access to hands-on faculty advising and mentoring when submitting applications to research placements and further schooling.

To get accepted into the program, applicants must have a bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution with sufficient undergraduate coursework, transcripts from all previously attended colleges and universities, GRE general exam scores (optional), a statement of purpose, three letters of recommendation, and TOEFL or IELTS scores for international students whose native language is not English.

  • Location: Miami, FL
  • Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC)
  • Expected Time to Completion: 10 months
  • Estimated Tuition: $50,000 per year

Step 3a: Earn a PhD (Four to Seven Years)

After completing their early education, aspiring biomedical scientists can earn a doctoral degree in biomedical science. While some may opt for a dual degree program (see step 3B below), a PhD can prepare graduates for work in academia, research, and industry.

Admissions requirements vary from school to school but generally include some combination of the following: an exemplary academic record (3.3 GPA or greater); GRE scores; letters of recommendation; work and/or research experience; a personal statement; and in-person interviews.

Boston University

The Program in Biomedical Science (PiBS) at Boston University offers students a PhD that can be tailored to their specific research interests. Ten different departments participate in the program: biochemistry; biophysics; genetics and genomics; immunology training; microbiology; molecular and translational medicine; nutrition and metabolism; oral biology; pathology and laboratory medicine; and physiology.

In the first year, students work with a faculty advisor to develop a personalized study plan. In addition to core courses and electives, students attend research seminars and experience three lab rotations. Participation in clinical shadowing and directed research prepares graduates for a career as biomedical scientists. Furthermore, the program provides a host of opportunities for professional development, which can aid one’s introduction into a career pipeline.

As part of the program, students will delve into topics such as protein structure, catalysis, and interaction; architecture and dynamics of the cell; mechanisms of cell communication; techniques in biochemistry, cell, and molecular biology; macromolecular assemblies; comprehensive immunology; and immunological basis of disease.

  • Location: Boston, MA
  • Accreditation: Liaison Committee on Medical Education of the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Association; New England Commission of Higher Education (NECHE)
  • Expected Time to Completion: 12 months
  • Estimated Tuition: $1,994 per credit-hour

Step 3b: Consider a Dual MD-PhD Degree (Optional, Six to Eight Years)

Some biomedical scientists opt to pair their PhD with a medical doctor (MD) degree. While PhD programs focus primarily on research methods (e.g., project design, data interpretation), dual-degree programs complement that research education with the clinical skills necessary to be a practicing physician. The two skill sets complement each other well in biomedical science.

Requirements for dual-degree programs vary from school to school but often include some combination of the following: an exemplary undergraduate GPA (3.3 or greater), MCAT scores, letters of recommendation, work and/or research experience, a personal statement, and an in-person interview.

Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Central Florida

The Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Central Florida offers a rigorous, integrated MD-PhD program that allows students to complete the requirements of both degrees simultaneously. Students will take medical courses during their first two years and must pass the first of three United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) exams at the end of year two before beginning full-time graduate studies.

During those first two years, students also must begin working on their PhD research project. While clinical clerkships (typically years three and four of medical school) may be deferred until a student has completed their PhD requirements, some level of ongoing clinical training must continue through the duration of the entire program.

In addition to the MD curriculum, the PhD adds a minimum of 72 credits of study, including core courses, electives, laboratory rotations, and dissertation research. Students with a master’s degree may waive up to 30 credits of this requirement with committee approval.

  • Location: Orlando, FL
  • Accreditation: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC)
  • Expected Time to Completion: 72 months
  • Estimated Tuition: In-state (369.65 per credit); out-of-state (1,194.05 per credit)

Step 4: Consider Postdoctoral Research Experience (Optional, Timeline Varies)

After completing their PhD, many biomedical scientists go into postdoctoral research. Gaining independent experience in running studies and publishing new research areas can be critical in winning tenure-track positions at universities and catapult one into desirable positions in the industrial sphere. In biomedical science, one research question often leads to another, and gaining postdoctoral research can boost one’s credentials.

Biomedical Scientist Certification & Licensure

According to the BLS (2023), medical scientists who primarily conduct research don’t need specific certification or license. However, biomedical scientists who practice medicine, administer drugs or gene therapy, or work in patient clinical trials or physicians’ clinics need a medical license to practice.

While medical licensure requirements vary by state, according to the American Medical Association, all states require physicians to pass the three-step United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE). Here are four certification options for biomedical scientists.

The United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is a three-part examination required for medical licensure in all 50 states. Also known colloquially as “the boards,” all practicing physicians must pass these exams, measuring scientific knowledge, clinical knowledge, and diagnosis and treatment.

Here are some other biomedical science certifications to consider.

North American Board of Naturopathic Examiners (NABNE)

Physicians who choose the naturopathic physician route and prove eligibility can take the Naturopathic Physicians Licensing Examinations (NPLEX) Part I – the Biomedical Science Examination. Students who choose this option must meet biomedical science coursework from an approved naturopathic medical program (ANMP) including anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, genetics, immunology, microbiology, pathology, and required laboratories.

American Medical Technologists (AMT) Certifications

American Medical Technologists (AMT) certifies medical laboratory technicians (MLTs) and offers four distinctive professional pathways for licensure. Aspiring biomedical scientists can earn certification through one of four routes, including an associate’s degree in medical laboratory technology; an alternative education route with two years of clinical laboratory science courses; the completion of a 50-week US military medical laboratory training program; or proof of a similar educational pathway.

Eligibility is confirmed via an online application at which point test-takers can register for the medical laboratory technician (MLT), medical technologist (MT), or another related allied health laboratory exam.

Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS) Certifications

The Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS) is an international organization dedicated to advancing knowledge and setting standards in biomedical science. IBMS offers a wealth of certifications for biomedical scientists:

  • IBMS Certificate of Competence: This professional qualification demonstrates an individual meets the Health & Care Professions Council (HCPC) standards to register as a biomedical scientist.
  • Specialist Diploma: Through submitting a portfolio of work as evidence of training, practical skills, specialist knowledge, and competency, early-career biomedical scientists can verify their experience with blood sciences or other biomedical disciplines.
  • Higher and expert qualifications: For biomedical scientists who want to advance their careers in management or demonstrate high levels of knowledge and competence, certificates and diplomas of expert practice are available in specialist areas. An online certificate of expert practice is available.
  • Advanced qualifications: Designed for senior-level biomedical scientists with PhDs, this certification verifies one’s commensurate experience as a medical consultant in areas of specialization such as cervical cytology, histopathology reporting, ophthalmic pathology, and specimen dissection.

Helpful Resources for Biomedical Scientists

All forms of science rely on iteration, innovation, and collaboration. To listen in on some of the high-level conversations in peer-reviewed biomedical science today, check out some resources below.

Rachel Drummond, MEd
Rachel Drummond, MEd Writer

Rachel Drummond has contributed insightful articles to since 2019, where she offers valuable advice and guidance for those pursuing careers in the healthcare field, combining her passion for education with her understanding of the critical role that healthcare professionals play in promoting physical and mental well-being.

Rachel is a writer, educator, and coach from Oregon. She has a master’s degree in education (MEd) and has over 15 years of experience teaching English, public speaking, and mindfulness to international audiences in the United States, Japan, and Spain. She writes about the mind-body benefits of contemplative movement practices like yoga on her blog, inviting people to prioritize their unique version of well-being and empowering everyone to live healthier and more balanced lives.